تکنولوژی آموزشی و برنامه ریزی درسی
آروین توکلی دکتری علوم تربیتی گرایش طراحی و تکنولوژی آموزشی در برنامه ربزی درسی
email : firstname.lastname@example.org
دوستانی که تمایل دارندمطالب علمی خود در زمینه مدیریت . برنامه ریزی درسی . آموزش مجازی و تکنولوژی آموزشی را در این وبلاگ درج نمایند,می توانند مطالب خود را به ایمیل من ارسال کنند.
لینک های مفید
پنجشنبه سیزدهم آبان 1389 :: 14:37 :: نويسنده : آروین توکلی
Analysis and review of virtual teaching patterns in order to offer and appropriate pattern in Iran
Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch
Marvdasht / Iran
The Purpose of the Present research is the Analysis and review of virtual teaching patterns in order to offer an appropriate pattern the method of this research is descriptive-Analytic. And the data Collection tools have included Studying in libraries, investigating related sites and interviewing with sighted people in this field. The virtual teaching methods people in this field. The virtual teaching methods that have been investigated in this research include: virtual teaching design pattern of Govin Dasami (2002), Virtual teaching design pattern of siemens (2002), Virtual teaching design Pattern of siemens (2002) And Virtual environment design pattern and they are all enforceable in Iran. In analysis and review of virtual the teaching patterns, the patterns are related to sighted people like behavioral and structural Bendora, Nigotsky, Ganie and Broner and they are analyzed according to instruction theories. One of the most important parts of this research is the ways of web designing according to each theory of virtual teaching learning. Besides this, in this research a mixed pattern. a been presented that pays attention to underlying structure of human and psychological virtual teaching Such as, Creativity, provocation and shared learning. And it presents Some Practical Solutions for designers of this king of teaching.
Keywords: Virtual teaching patterns, learning theories, virtual teaching, e-learning
One of the technology uses is virtual teaching and it’s a method of teaching in which we use different kinds of electronic media to teach something to individuals Teaching designing, performance, the Valuation of Virtual teaching Programs all deal with very Sensitive factors that Sometimes due to lack of awareness about the issues related to new technology are hidden for resolves or investors in this section. Most designers just pay attention to underlying Structure of Virtual teaching. And it causes that we don’t pay attention to some points like the learning Style, emotions and status, needs and provocation.
Two phenomenons of Speed and population have caused a new Challenge for education world. The fact that how we can provide educational information and materials for people seeking knowledge and Science is a fact that leads us towards long-distance teaching and virtual universities more and more.
If we accept this interpretation that each technology is developed just for developing one of the human abilities, then we understand that information technology is a technique for ravening human thought.
So, practical field of information technology and education is thinking of Creating and educational System but not renovation of that. At the present, a change in educational System has started, but we are in the beginning of the way.
A Fundamental change is on way to happen.Perhaps. The usage of information technology is certain in education, but its method and purpose is definitely optional. If you have a wise selection can result in remaining behind and Following Something blindly can lead to Unidentification and value abolishment.(Ghadiri, Poashar doost, 1382)
The purpose of virtual teaching is not to change traditional teaching to virtual one but, to present specific teaching with modern methods. The maxim of virtual teaching is teaching to every body in any age. So we should see what things we can’t Present through traditional method and then try to present them through virtual teaching. We should use Virtual teaching facilities in order for improving traditional teaching but not for substituting it.
These days, every body, everywhere talking about accessing information easily and in the shortest time. All of this discipline, attention and Speed are because of the invention of Computer and its daily growth and also internet and its influence in all the world’s houses. Considering the Speed of information technology growth, we Can Predict that every person wanting to get information, knowledge and Science will be able to attend educational Courses belonging to other Countries and universities without time and place restrictions.
And he/she can finish different processes of education Successfully (Kangar Loo, 1386). A Person who is in Charge of "Takfa" electronic education Committee States that: teaching and improving human force is considered as the most Pivotal issue in "Takfa".
Within the frame work of improvement and usage of information and Communication technology (TAKFA)
The human Sources improvement is stated through electronic teaching. (Karim Zadegan, B86)
reforming a wall –free university was often used in 1970s- And it was used not only to improve the new educational and research technology- but also to improve the belief of open political and cultural space in high education and research.
It has changed into a scientific fact in high technology that has another symbol Called Virtual University. The number of such virtual institutes that give Virtual Certifications is growing.
Some estimates show that only in the United States there are about 300 Colleges and universities that offer Such Courses of high education – And we expect that the Virtual teaching market becomes twice as many each year. And it would reach 11.5 billion dollars until the end of 2003. (keldy, 381)
Despite the abundant Problems that exist for Providing Virtual teaching facilities in Iran, in logic Programming System, The fact that this Society is young is one of its Specialties about a half million instructor are in charge of teaching twenty million students all over the Country.
The need to Classrooms is growing everyday, different buildings are being established in most parts.
Of the Country by state, Azad and payam-e-noor universities, Experts believe that educational System in our Country with abundant expenses will establish a weak foundation and by this kind of investment again high education of our Country is not able to accept more than ten Percent of Students demanding high education According to these problems we Can Say that the best investment in high education, is choosing Virtual education because it Can be the Shortest and the most efficient way for high education of the Country .( Faramarzian, 1384)
According to Daniel in 1996, in order that we fix the share rate of university Students in developing world, we should open a new university every week, so that we can respond to the growing young Population. It is obvious that while a few number of developing Countries Can Provide the financial sources for the Current high education institutes, it’s logical to attract to long-distance education technology. (Keldy, 1381)
Virtual teaching can even provide exchange for one Country. Investment on Software affairs and producing the required Software for Virtual teaching may not be inaccessible.
By its little expenses. Anyway, one of the biggest world markets in future is Virtual teaching. Designing such teaching method without enough research and investigation about the existent patterns is a useless work.
That’s why virtual teaching should increase the learning quality and help the Student in their individual growth and they should in their individual growth and they should interest him/her in research and discoveries. Without considering the maneuver and programming, the above- stated goals and Purposes won’t be fulfilled. The first process of production and offering virtual teaching programs, knows the virtual teaching Patterns and educational design. By knowing these Patterns, we Can evaluate the designing and Performance of this kind of teaching in the Country.
The research background:
The first Congress of Electronic education was held in khordad of 1382. And it was held by the means of Takfa Electronic education Committee and it was supposed to know the inner abilities about Electronic education introduce this method to the instructors and students and also activate the related parts. The programs of this Congress include: Scientific speech, educational workshops, and presenting the products in booths. The Congress secretary (karim zadegan) said that the purpose of this Congress is to be familiar with the scientific financial ability of the Country and also to provide a wave in national electronic education. By considering the articles related to the first electronic education Congress we will find out that most articles were about the standards of learning management systems and software's.
(the articles, such as knowing web ct software facilities by Abolfazl Yazdian Kashani , to standard electronic education and spoota electronic education Software by Barmak Heydar Asad , The under lying structure of national teaching networks by Amir poor Soltani , re engineering Concept of electronic learning according to knowledge management by Mehdi Feizi. Examining and evaluating some educational software's available in Iran market by Alireza Manafi.
Few people have done Some Studies and researches about human issues and Virtual teaching specialties without putting the instructor versus traditional teaching.
The Virtual teaching in Iran doesn’t have a very long record of service except a short experience in national university before the revolution and Payam-e-noor university and some majors available in Shiraz university that have just been started. In the late seventies the Virtual teaching was included in Tehran University and some related projects started. In 1380, the Virtual teaching site of Tehran University started by offering nine lessons for daily students at university. In the Same year, Science ministry announced that there will start an internet- based university which is controlled by this ministry but it’s offered as private institutes all over the Country for educational Services. Following that some of the universities announced that they’ve started electronic educations in their programs. And at the moment, most of these universities are offering some lessons as individual ones for their present students. At the moment, educational system of Iran in examination and error process are made for ravening electronic educational systems.
Holding different professional Congresses about electronic education in Iran Can show the positive attitude of Iran towards this technology about growth and developing programs. (Zamani, 1386)
The virtual teaching space is different from traditional teaching space. They have heir own properties. If we try to restore the traditional education Contents to HTML Pages, is totally wrong and we should Consider the properties, needs and learning styles and it needs researches. Few researches have done in this field.
Rabeie in Sharif industrial university is doing researches about safety structure, availability, Volume and ability, Standards and generally vocational issues in Virtual teaching. Universities like Tehran University, Shiraz University, Tarbiat Modares University and Sharif have tried to Start Some Virtual Classes. They have been held experimentally.
Same researches that have been done in Iran are like Following:
1- A Comparison between educational development of People who are accepted in Master’s degree in Payamnoor university ( Long- distance education) and the people who are accepted in Master’s degree through the State entrance examination in Payamnoor university.
This research has been done by a descriptive method of research and statistical Society of the research includes Master’s students of Payamnoor University in Tehran, Isfahan and Tabriz. The results of this research has Shown that students of Faragir master’s degree have much educational growth in Comparison with the students of state Master’s degree And also the students in human science and Married students and employed students who Study in Master’s in Faragir were more Successful than those who study in Master’s in State universities ( farajolah; , firoozfar , 1385)
2- Fardanesh, (1380) Presents and article with the title of necessary Fields and Solutions for the growth of long- distance education in Iran and in that article it explains a descriptive- prescriptive pattern to develop universities in high and long- distance education and it explains: universities and high- education Centers who wanted to provide. Basic and Fundamental changes in all fields have faced important decisions and choices, These decisions are designed in four fields:
a) To understand, attract and digest new Science of wisdom.
b) To identify and use new ways of learning psychology
c) Complete acquaintance and using new Communicative technology
d) Exact acquaintance in economical fields related to high and long – distance education.
Universities and high education Centers make their decisions after analyzing the above fundamental Categories exactly in every performing and practical process it starts By mixing new technologies in teaching and learning Lessons and the exist Courses and after that by presenting long- distance lessons and then presenting long- distance Courses and in final stage it leads to have virtual universities.
3- A research of educational design for teaching based and web, Presents a study about teaching method design in accordance with online teaching. there are four theories of teaching design based on web:
a) Elaboration theory
b) Domain theory
c) Work model synthesis
d) four- Component instructional design.
4) In a global Conference that was about electronic and internet- based Cities in Kish Island, There was an article with the title of an introduction of a long- distance and internet – based educational System. In this article, the general function of a long- distance teaching System is devided into three Categories:
a) Educational activities consisting production of lessons in educational Courses, Presenting educational Courses, Starting Virtual Classes.
b) Research activities Consisting group and individual projects and having Conferences and Seminars.
c) Central activities Consisting educational programming Students acceptance, Source and tool management (Eskandarian and Kahani, 1380)
In other Countries, Some researches have been done that are like the following:
1) At the end of year 2000, research institution Training Zone in Land tried to start a Vast Study about Social effects of electronic learning method in education, the above- mentioned institution tried together information in the related field after the end of year 2001. Then after Comparing the Collected information during two years in row we got a lot of interesting information and all of them showed the process of electronic learning method development (growth), with three other methods. Of classroom teaching, private teaching and long- distance teaching. In reply to the question how do you think of electronic learning?
Most responders (78%) believed that electronic learning method as the best teaching method Started in the following year and 22% believed that they had the least growth in Comparison with the last year.
Growth diagram shows electronic learning and technology growth. Since 1985 that electronic Teaching was introduced in educational CDS, Work facilities in network appeared gradually and At the Same time, some facilities of group work among Students and instructors started in this environment, the homework's became more various and they could attract more people to themselves and they could engage the Computer users with their lessons. Also, the Capability of user’s management and having educational attractions for them, led to a better development of this method. As a result, we can see that electronic learning method has got a very noticeable growth. This method doesn’t have any dangers for other methods of teaching Specially Class-room teaching. The Surveys indicate that Class teaching has still kept its Condition as a good teaching method meanwhile, electronic learning method has not been Successful in every field and it hasn’t been able to have all the Class benefits and perhaps the mixed learning comes from this place.
The purposes of this research:
A) The general purpose:
Analyzing virtual teaching patterns in order for offering an appropriate pattern.
b) Detailed purposes:
1. Recognizing different Patterns of Virtual teaching.
2. Determining how to use the learning theories in designing Virtual teaching atmosphere.
3. Presenting an appropriate pattern for virtual teaching
* Research questions:
- What are the different virtual teaching patterns?
- How is the use of learning theories in designing virtual teaching atmosphere?
- How can be an appropriate Virtual teaching atmosphere?
- How can be appropriate virtual teaching patterns?
* Research methods:
In this research we use descriptive – theatrical method and this research is qualitative in its field.
First, the researcher Studies the theoretical bases and He analyzes different patterns and ideas. And then some data has been collected through interview with sighted People in the field of virtual teaching.
Statistical society and Sample research:
Statistical society involves all Sources and references
(Looks, articles, Sites, etc.) That is related to Virtual teaching pattern that is used in Iran and other Countries. But Since Virtual teaching Patterns are limited, they are chosen selectively by sampling method of ambitious Patterns Gavin Dasamy (2002) or virtual teaching pattern, Zemens (2002) or the pattern of virtual teaching design and designing Virtual environment.
In this Part, the Statistical Society involves experts that have at least one scientific article in this field.
The tools and methods of collecting data:
According to research questions, the required data have been made in two ways:
a) library studies:
The books and Certification in virtual teaching and electronic learning that are mainly come through information banks, Science direct, Request, Google and also through digital libraries of Association of Advancement of Computing in Education (A A C E).
A two- person Conversation that starts by the interviewer to get information related to the research and also is concentrated on Topics that he needs to achieve the research goals.
According to the Topic novelty and limited number of Sighted People, interviewing and doing Surveys from the experts or experienced People in virtual teaching field and electronic learning, Can help the researcher to Collect data and present a pattern.
The results of this research:
The results of this research are not statically and they are qualitative. So, the Criteria that are used for analyzing qualitative data's are certainly wisdom, thought, analysis and Sensibility. The researcher analyzes them by studding the Certifications. As a result, in analyzing qualitative data's the researcher has used a descriptive- interpretive way.
And due to different learning theories and the ideas of interviewees. The researcher has taken Steps to write some ways for Virtual teaching designers.
The Virtual teaching designing pattern (I) or Govin Dasamy Pattern are Stated according to principle Pedagogy. In this pattern, different parts of teaching have been explained but a Critic that people have about this pattern is that the Processes of designing virtual teaching atmosphere are not being noticed. This pattern only shows a general view of Virtual environment and the mentioned elements in this pattern are important elements in Virtual teaching atmosphere and designers should pay attention to these elements while designing this kind of teaching.
It is assumed that the fundamental patterns of Virtual teaching design (II) or siemens pattern is that behavior is an observable and measurable phenomenon that changes in different environments. In this Pattern, they use a Pre- Planned topic that is able to be reduced to Smaller Components in a way that learning important Components, Can Cause the learner to reach the desired result and in fact, the learner can't select anything. In this pattern the designer just presents the learning Components in regular basis. This regularity is got by the students and receives the appropriate response. Also the students are asked to generalize what they‘ve learnt to similar Situations.
(i.e. learning transfer is received as a result of the generalization.). The Students in this pattern only receive the knowledge that is Presented in different ways and in fact he is responsible for answering each Stimulant by offering an answer and he should pay attention to positive booster that are provided by a Correct answer. Social System in this pattern is controlled by a teacher and the Students take steps in a way that teachers draw for him. However this Subject is one of the most important critics that people have about this Pattern.
Virtual teaching design pattern (III) Or Virtual environment design is mentioned based on structural theory. At it involves the following defects:
1) The way of absence- presence ( taking roles)
2) The way students come to network.
3) Determining necessary rules for registration
4) Paying the tuition.
5) If evaluating the lessons should be in process or final?
6) How to hold such evaluations.
It’s completely obvious that a discussion about different ways in the field of teaching design has some fundamental differences with the discussions about such ways in teaching philosophy. A sighted person in teaching in theory and philosophical thoughts in the field of teaching has to get one of the philosophical ways of teaching. And in this Case there isn’t any Place for getting mixed ways, but on the other way, teaching designing Can Select Some Special Solutions Selectively for its Practical and performing features.
Beaker States the fundamental factors that teaching designers Should Consider for mixing Learning theories while designing, like the following:
- Mixing learning theories – because different people learn different ways through different tools.
- The way of mixed teaching-because the teaching program can be used for presenting information, private teaching, extra curricular teaching, offering through opportunities, experience or consultations.
- Mixing the media roles – because media can have the role of a tutor, instructor, guide, book, tool box, and assimilator and information resource.
- Environmental factors – physical conditions in which learning takes place, like house, work place, learning center, conference room.
- Control place – does the control of learning process takes place by learners or by a computer or does it happen between both of them.
- The type of content – it contains content – it contains content organization the type of learning method in content and the accessible sources related to the content (quoted by fardanesh, 1387).
- Atkins (1993) says about mixing learning theories :
- The designers agree with the mixed method of designing since it’s completely flexible. For instance, same of the designers mix the analysis and evaluation of behavioral and assimilation method with structural way.
By considering the history of psychological researches in the recent century, you can understand that the ideas appear regularly and each time they have a shorter distance and the scientific growth has developed in a way as if everybody is waiting for newer ways. In this laboratory that all experiments rules and methods examiner and the examine are changing very fast discussion and thought about one idea is a non-generative and static idea. (Fardanesh, 1387 quoted by Dicsetra 10, 1998) So according to flexibility of the mixed idea and also according to beaker and atkins and Discestra, a selective idea for providing a proposed pattern in the present research which is an idea based on “desirable mixture “ of all learning theories . The proposed pattern has been presented.
In order to minimize the virtual teaching limitation (electronic learning).
According to the received data from:
1) some statements about virtual teaching patterns
2) Designing the observed virtual teaching atmosphere.
3) The virtual teaching patterns of interviewers
4) And also the interviewers’ ideas
Some ways have been organized for the designers of this kind of teaching
According to Ganie theory that considers the learner’s awareness from teaching purpose a very important principle in learning purpose and also the best method for the start of teaching is presenting a big image from teaching content to the students.
At first, the proposed pattern which is called lesson programs of electronic learning, presents a general view about the course to students.
This general view helps students learn things through the following ways:
- Presenting a conceptual framework for the knowledge and new abilities.
- presenting a framework for communication and using content,
- Awareness of the students from learning purposes and expectations.
- Practical suggestions in achieving virtual teaching :
- in university communication
- inter-university field ( scientific network of the country)
- equipping the university with appropriate hardware and software
- determining a teaching program for the awareness of instructors and students by information technology
- Determining a standard framework for designing virtual classes.
- Getting scientific content (educational and laboratory with learning plan from the instructor and changing it into virtual class format with the instructor’s observation.
- Reviewing in supportive structure of the research.
- Designing informatics libraries ( Hybrid and digital )
- On-time informative system
- Moving towards a digital atmosphere in research processes.
- paying attention to virtual teaching as a mass program
- Encouraging the instructors to move toward this direction (i.e. job promotion, score pr
- Atkins, M. '-Rejoinder (1993). Pp.251-271.: theories of teaming and multimedia applications: an overview', Research Paper in Education: Policy and Practice, 8, 2.
- Bahreinin'ad, A. & Montazer, gh. (2002). Instructional modeling design for web-based education. Institute of information technology, Tarbiat Modarres University.
- Brown, B. L. (2000). Web-based-training. Report No.EDO-CE-00218.Wshington, DC.: Office of Educational Research and Improvements.
- Spigner-Littles, D. A. & Chalon, E. (1999). Constructivism a paradigm for older learners.
Educational Gerontology, 25 , 203-210.
- Francis, L. (2003). Serenitynow:making peace with e-learning. Learning circuits-ASTD's online magazine all about e-learning.
Available at :http://www.leamingeircuits.or /2g 003/gpr2003/elearn html
- Kante, ch. & Savani, V. (2003). E-learning the new frontier the developing word.
Techno logia, January-march. 15-19
- Mccann,Benjamin.(2001).Knowledgement,history of e-learning.
- Elizabeth and Goodridge(2002). The structure of scientific revolutions.
- Levy, yair.(2002).libraries and the enhancement of E-learning.
- Keegan, morgan.(2002) . information technology and management .
- Kersley.(2000). The changing faces of virtual education.
- Gian and ltoowang.(2003) , strategies for e-education, industrial and commercial training.
تمامی حقوق این وبلاگ محفوظ است |طراحی : پیچک